A systematic review of the impact of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes in otology.
The detrimental systemic effects of cigarette smoking are well established. Though less pronounced in the field of otology, they are proposed to contribute to the global burden of unaddressed hearing loss. Recently, in efforts to stop smoking, individuals have used electronic cigarettes of which the long-term safety data are largely unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette effects in the field of otology.Relevant articles were identified by a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence healthcare database literature search and by scanning the references of relevant articles and reviews.A total of 473 articles were identified, with 43 articles included in the review after trials were excluded.Cigarette smoking is associated with recurrent otitis media, otitis media with effusion and sensorineural hearing loss in children exposed to second-hand smoke. In adults, it is associated with active and aggressive chronic suppurative otitis media, worse tympanoplasty success rates, increased post-operative complications and sensorineural hearing loss that is more pronounced in the long term and at high frequencies. The effects of e-cigarettes in otology are largely unknown.