A review of seizures and epilepsy following traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the commonest presentations to emergency departments and is associated with seizures carrying different significance at different stages following injury. We describe the epidemiology of early and late seizures following TBI, the significance of intracranial haemorrhage of different types in the risk of later epilepsy and the gaps in current understanding of risk factors contributing to the risk of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). The delay from injury to epilepsy presents an opportunity to understand the mechanisms underlying changes in the brain and how they may reveal potential targets for anti-epileptogenic therapy. We review existing treatments, both medical and surgical and conclude that current research is not tailored to differentiate between PTE and other forms of focal epilepsy. Finally, we review the increasing understanding of the frequency and significance of dissociative seizures following mild TBI.