2017 American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guideline: Impact on Prevalence of Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.
In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics introduced a new guideline (2017 Clinical Practice Guideline of the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP 2017]) to diagnose arterial hypertension (HTN) in children that included revised, lower normative blood pressure (BP) values and cut points for diagnosing high BP in adolescents. We studied the impact of the new AAP 2017 guideline on prevalence of HTN in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).Up to September 2018, 1.4 million office BP measurements in 79,849 children and adolescents (aged 5-20 years) with T1DM have been documented in the DPV (Diabetes Prospective Follow-up) registry. BP values of the most recent year were aggregated, and BP values of 74,677 patients without antihypertensive medication were analyzed (median age 16 years and diabetes duration 5.3 years and 52.8% boys). BP values were classified according to AAP 2017 and the references of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) (2011) and the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents (fourth report) (2004).Of the patients, 44.1%, 29.5%, and 26.5% were hypertensive according to AAP 2017, KiGGS, and fourth report, respectively. Differences in prevalence of HTN were strongly age dependent: <10 years, AAP 2017 31.4%, KiGGS 30.7%, fourth report 19.6%; 10 to <15 years, AAP 2017 30.9%, KiGGS 31.2%, fourth report 22.4%; and ≥15 years, AAP 2017 53.2%, KiGGS 28.4%, fourth report 30.0%. Among teenagers ≥15 years, 59.1% of boys but only 46.3% of girls were classified as hypertensive by AAP 2017 but only 21.1%/26% of boys and 36.7%/34.4% of girls by KiGGS/fourth report, respectively.Classification of BP as hypertension depends strongly on the normative data used. Use of AAP 2017 results in a significant increase in HTN in teenagers ≥15 years with T1DM, particularly in boys. AAP 2017 enhances the awareness of elevated BP in children, particularly in patients with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.